001) Abu el-‘Alayiq North, Tell

[PADIS code 0003]

Arabic: تلول أبو العلايق الشمالي

Site location: Lat. +31° 51' 9.19" N; Long. +35° 26' 2.70" E.

Extension: the extension of Tulul Abu el-‘Alayiq (both Tell Abu el-‘Alayiq North and Tell Abu el-‘Alayiq South) is ca. 120 dunams; the extension of the whole Royal Estate is ca. 500 dunams.

State of preservation: preserved.

Disturbance: modern cultivations.

Occupational periods: Early Bronze Age, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine.

Plates: I, III-X.

 

Early Bronze Age

Site typology: village.

Domestic architecture: floors, walls (Areas AB and AM).

Material culture: pottery.

Bibliography: Netzer 2001a, 1, 7, note 2; Netzer - Bar-Nathan 2002, 14.

 

Hellenistic Period

Site typology: palace complex.

Public architecture: towers (pre-palace and palace phases), palaces (First Hasmonean Palace with ritual baths, "Buried Palace" and "Pool Complex" with ritual baths, "Fortified Palace", "Twin Palaces"), industrial area with ritual baths, synagogue complex (after Netzer 2000b) or triclinium (after Maoz 1999; Rapuano 2001).

Domestic architecture: dwelling units east of the "Twin Palaces".

Material culture: frescoes, mosaics, architectural features, coins, alabaster and basalt mortars ("Pool Complex"), pottery.

Bibliography: Netzer 1973, pl. 72:A-B; 1974, 27; 1975, 89-92; 1977, figs. 1-9; 1982a, 45-48; 1982b; 1982c; 1983, 51; 1984, 7, fig. 12; 1985; 1986; 1990, 36-42, figs. 2-5; 1993, 683-686; 1996; 2000a; 2000b; 2001a, 1-7, 11-174, 334-338; 2001b; 2004, 9-13, 17-25; 2008a, 1798-1799; Donceel-Voûte 1999, 99-100; Maoz 1999; Netzer - Kalman - Laureys-Cachy 1999; 2004; Netzer - Kalman - Loris 1999; Rapuano 2001; Netzer - Bar-Nathan 2002, 13-16, 19-20; Netzer - Laureys-Cachy 2004a; 2004b; Stacey 2006, 191-200; Greenberg - Keinan 2009, 71-72, site n. 357.

 

Roman Period

Site typology: palace complex.

Public architecture: Herod's Second Palace, with ritual baths and bathhouse, Herod's Third Palace (northern wing), industrial area.

Material culture: frescoes, mosaics, coins, Terra Sigillata Ware, pottery.

Bibliography: Conder - Kitchener 1883, 224-225; Netzer 1983, 51; 1990, 44-45, figs. 10-11; 1993, 687; 2001a, 8, 175-228, 312-316, 339; 2006, 50-54; 2008a, 1800; 2008b, 50-54; Nigro, F. 1998, 208; Netzer - Bar-Nathan 2002, 17; Meshorer 2004; Stacey 2006, 200-201; Yahya 2007, 16-17; Greenberg - Keinan 2009, 71-72, site n. 357.

 

Byzantine Period

Site typology: agricultural activities.

Public architecture: channels.

Bibliography: Netzer 1984, 9; 1993, 691; 2001a, 10, 341.

 

Bibliography

Conder, C.R. - Kitchener, H.H.
1883 The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. Volume III. Sheets XVII-XXVI. Judaea, London 1883 (in particular pp. 224-225).
Donceel-Voûte, P.
1999 "Jéricho Asmonéenne et Hérodienne", in Dossiers d'Archéologie 240 (Jan./Fév. 1999), pp. 98-105 (in particular pp. 99-105).
Greenberg, R. - Keinan, A.
2009 Israeli Archaeological Activity in the West Bank 1967-2007. A Sourcebook, Jerusalem 2009 (in particular pp. 71-72, site n. 357, map 2).
Maoz, U.Z.
1999 "The Synagogue that Never Existed in the Hasmonean Palace at Jericho: Remarks Concerning an Article by E. Netzer, Y. Kalman and R. Loris", in Qadmoniot 118 (1999), pp. 120-121 (Hebr.).
Meshorer, Y.
2004 "The Coins", in E. Netzer - R. Laureys-Chachy - Y. Meshorer (eds.) 2004, pp. 289-312.
Netzer, E.
1973 "Jericho", in Israel Exploration Journal 23/4, p. 260.
1974 "The Hasmonean and Herodian Winter Palaces at Jericho", in Qadmoniot 7/1-2 (25-26) (1974), pp. 27-36 (in particular p. 27).
1975 "The Hasmonean and Herodian Winter Palaces at Jericho", in Israel Exploration Journal 25 (1975), pp. 89-100.
1977 "The Winter Palaces of Judean Kings at Jericho at the End of the Second Temple", in Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 228 (1977), pp. 1-13 (in particular pp. 1-7, figs. 1-9).
1982a "Jericho, Winter Palaces", in Excavations and Surveys in Israel 1 (1982), pp. 44-49 (in particular pp. 45-48).
1982b "Recent Discoveries in the Winter Palaces of Second Temple Times at Jericho", in Qadmoniot 15/1 (57) (1982), pp. 22-28.
1982c "Ancient Ritual Baths (Miqvaot) in Jericho", in The Jerusalem Cathedra 2 (1982), pp. 106-119.
1983 "Jericho - Winter Palaces 1983", in Excavations and Surveys in Israel 2 (1983), pp. 50-51 (in particular p. 50).
1984 "Water Channels and a Royal Estate from Late Hellenistic Period in the Western Plains of Jericho", in Vorträge der Tagung Historiche Wassermutzgungsanlages im östlichen Mittelmeerraum. Paper of the Symposium Historical Development Projects in the Eastern Mediterranean in Jerusalem, 21./22. März 1983 (Mitteilungen aus dem Leichtweiß-Institut für Wasserbau 82/1984), pp. 1-12, figs. 1-15 (in particular p. 7, fig. 12).
1985 "The Swimming Pools of the Hasmonean Period at Jericho", in Erezt Israel 18 (1985), pp. 344-352 (Hebr.), 77* (Engl.).
1986 "The Swimming Pools of the Hasmonean Period at Jericho", in Vorträge der Tagung Geschichtliche Wasserbauten in Ägypten. Kairo, 10. bis 17. Februar 1986 (Mitteilungen aus dem Leichtweiß-Institut für Wasserbau 89/86), Braunschweig 1986, pp. 1-12, figs. 1-15.
1990 "Architecture in Palestine Prior to and During the Days of Herod the Great", in Akten des XIII. Internationalen Kongresses für Klassische Archäeologie, Berlin 1988, Mainz am-Rhein 1990, pp. 37-50 (in particular pp. 36-42, 44-45, figs. 2-5, 10-11).
1993 "Tulul Abu el-‘Alayiq", in E. Stern (ed.), The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Vol. 2, Jerusalem 1993, pp. 682-691 (in particular pp. 683-687).
1996 "The Hasmonean Palaces in Palestine", in H. Hoepfuer - G. Brands (eds.), Die Paläste der Hellenistischer Könige. Internationale Symposion. Berlin von 16. 12. 1992 bis 20. 12. 1992, Main am-Rhein 1996, pp. 203-208.
1999 Die Paläste der Hasmonäer und Herodes’ des Groβen (Antike Welt Sonderhefe, Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie), Manz am Rhein 1999 (in particular pp. 5-31, 35-39).
2000a "Eine Synagogue aus hamonäischer Zeit. Zur neuen Ausgrabungen in der Westlichen Ebene von Jericho", in Antike Welt 31/5, pp. 477-484.
2000b "The Synagogue in Jericho - Did It Exist or Not? A response to U.Z. Maoz's Remarks in Qadmoniot XXII, No. 2 (118) 1999", in Qadmoniot 119 (2000), pp. 69-70 (Hebr.).
2001a Hasmonean and Herodian Palaces at Jericho: Final Reports of the 1973-1987 Excavations. Volume I: Stratigraphy and Architecture, Jerusalem 2001 (in particular pp. 1-8, 10, 11-13, 228, 301-316, 334-339).
2001b Palaces of the Hasmoneans and Herod The Great (Studies in Biblical History and Archaeology), Jerusalem 2001.
2004 "The Royal Estate", in E. Netzer - R. Laureys-Chachy - Y. Meshorer (eds.) 2004, pp. 3-38.
2006 The Architecture of Herod, the Great Builder, Tübingen 2006 (in particular pp. 50-54).
2008a "Jericho", in E. Stern (ed.), The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, Vol. 5 (Supplementary Volume), Jerusalem 2008, pp. 1798-1801.
2008b The Architecture of Herod the Great Builder, Grand Rapids, MI 2008 (in particular pp. 50-54).
Netzer, E. - Bar-Nathan, R.
2002 "Stratigraphy and Chronology of the Winter Palaces at Jericho", in R. Bar-Nathan, Hasmonean and Herodian Palaces at Jericho. Final Reports of the 1973-1987 Excavations. Volume III: the Pottery, Jerusalem 2002, pp. 13-20 (in particular pp. 13-17, 19-20).
Netzer, E. - Garbrecht, G.
2002 "Water channels and a Royal Estate of the Late Hellenistic period in Jericho's western plains", in D. Amit - J. Patrich - Y. Hirschfeld (eds.), The Aqueducts of Israel (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementum 46), Portsmouth 2002, pp. 367-377 (in particular 372-376).
Netzer, E. - Kalman, Y. - Laureys-Cachy, R.
1999 "A Synagogue from the Hasmonean Period Recently Brought to Light in the Plain of Jericho", in Israel Exploration Journal 49 (1999), pp. 205-216.
2004 "The Synagogue Complex", in E. Netzer - R. Laureys-Chachy - Y. Meshorer (eds.) 2004, pp. 159-194.
Netzer, E. - Kalman, Y. - Loris, Y.
1999 "A Hasmonean Period Synagogue at Jericho", in Qadmoniot 32/1 (1999), pp. 17-24 (Hebr.).
Netzer, E. - Laureys-Cachy, R.
2004a "The Industrial Area (Zone F)", in E. Netzer - R. Laureys-Chachy - Y. Meshorer (eds.) 2004, pp. 39-134.
2004b "Area AH", in E. Netzer - R. Laureys-Chachy - Y. Meshorer (eds.) 2004, pp. 145-158.
Netzer, E. - Laureys-Cachy, R. - Meshorer, Y. (eds.)
2004 Hasmonean and Herodian Palaces at Jericho. Final Reports of the 1973-1987 Excavations. Volume II, Jerusalem 2004.
Netzer, E. - Meyers, E.M.
1977

"Preliminary Report on the Joint Jericho Excavation Project", in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 218 (1977), pp. 17-27.

Nigro, F.
1998

"Il parco archeologico per la conservazione e la valorizzazione di Tell es-Sultan, antica Gerico", in N. Marchetti - L. Nigro (eds.), Scavi a Gerico, 1997. Relazione preliminare sulla prima campagna di scavi e prospezioni archeologiche a Tell es-Sultan, Palestina (Quaderni di Gerico I), Roma 1998, pp. 205-229 (in particular pp. 208-209).

Rapuano, Y.
2001

"The Hasmonean Period 'Synagogue' at Jericho and the 'Council Chamber' Building at Qumran", in Israel Exploration Journal 51 (2001), pp. 48-59.

Stacey, D.
2006 "Hedonists or pragmatic agriculturalists? Reassessing Hasmonean Jericho", in Levant 38 (2006), pp. 191-202.
Yahya, A.
2007

PACE Tourguide of Jericho & Vicinity. Historical, Archaeological and Religious Sites, Ramallah 2007 (in particular pp. 16-17).