021) ‘Ain es-Sultan (Elisha's Spring)

[PADIS code 0049]

Arabic: (عين السلطان (عين اليشع

Site ancient name: Elisha's Spring.

Site location: Lat. +31° 52' 13.23" N; Long. +35° 26' 41.48" E.

Site extension: 2 dunams.

Elevation: 250 m b.s.l.

State of preservation: under modern edification.

Disturbance: bulldozer cuts, modern building activities.

Occupational periods: Early Bronze I, Early Bronze II-III, Early Bronze IV, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman, Byzantine, Early Islamic, Ottoman, Modern.

Plates: I, III, XXX-XXXV.

 

 

Early Bronze I

Site typology: spring.

Material culture: flint tools, pottery.

Bibliography: Garstang 1932, pl. XII: 18, 20-21; Nigro 2005, 198-199, fig. 4:11; unpublished data from Rome "Sapienza" University survey carried out in 2009.

 

Early Bronze II-III

Site typology: spring.

Material culture: stone tools, flint tools, pottery.

Bibliography: Garstang 1932, 9-11, 17-18, fig. 5, pls. XIb, XII:7-8, 11-17, 19, 22, XX; Helms 1988, fig. 11; Nigro 2006, 366; unpublished data from Rome "Sapienza" University survey carried out in 2009.

 

Early Bronze IV

Site typology: spring.

Material culture: flint tools, pottery.

Bibliography: Garstang 1932, 17-18, fig. 5, pl. XII:9-10; Mellaart 1962, 156-157, site n. 84, unpublished data from Rome "Sapienza" University survey carried out in 2009.

 

Middle Bronze Age

Site typology: spring.

Material culture: pottery.

Bibliography: Garstang 1932, 12-13, pls. XIc, XII:1, 4; Helms 1988, fig. 12; unpublished data from Rome "Sapienza" University survey carried out in 2009.

 

Iron Age

Site typology: spring.

Material culture: pottery.

Bibliography: unpublished data from Rome "Sapienza" University survey carried out in 2009.

 

Roman Period

Site typology: spring.

Domestic architecture: nympheum.

Material culture: pottery.

Bibliography: Pococke 1745, 31; Bonar 1858, 302; Osborn 1868, 246; Warren 1869; Clermont-Ganneau 1874, 89; Wilson 1885, 171; Harper 1894, 124; Augustinović 1951, 38-41; Robinson - Smith 1970, 554-555; Bartlett 1982; Helms 1988; Dorrel 1993, 97, 112, figs. 2-6; Nigro, F. 1998, 207-208; Cirelli - Zagari 2000, 365, 367; unpublished data from Rome "Sapienza" University survey carried out in 2009.

 

Byzantine Period

Site typology: spring.

Public architecture: church.

Material culture: pottery.

Bibliography: pilgrims' accounts (see § 2.2); Ritter 1866, 33; Conder - Kitchener 1883, 176, 190, 222; Wilson 1885, 151; Avi-Yonah 1935; 1954, 22, 44; Robinson - Smith 1970, 554-555; Cirelli - Zagari 2000, 366-367.

 

Early Islamic Period (Umayyad Period)

Site typology: spring.

Material culture: pottery.

Bibliography: Kenyon 1956, 82; Cirelli - Zagari 2000, 365, 368.

 

Ottoman Period

Site typology: spring.

Public architecture: pool.

Bibliography: Pococke 1745, 31; Fisk 1843, 326; Wilson 1847, 12; Stewart 1857, 372; Bonar 1858, 302; Ritter 1866, 33; Osborn 1868, 242, 246; Newton 1870, 73; Wilson 1885, 171; Franklin 1991, 175; Kenyon 1956, 82; Dorrel 1993; Robinson - Smith 1970, 554-555; Cirelli - Zagari 2000, 365, 367-368.

 

Modern Period

Site typology: spring.

Public architecture: roofed pool.

 

Bibliography

Augustinović, P.A.
1951 Gerico e dintorni, Gerusalemme 1951 (in particular pp. 38-41).
Avi-Yonah, M.
1935 "Mosaic pavements in Palestine", in Quarterly of the Department of Antiquity of Palestine 4, Second Suppl. (1935), p. 189.
1954 The Madaba Mosaic Map, Jerusalem 1954 (in particular pp. 22, 44).
Bartlett, J.R.
1982 Jericho (Cities of the Biblical World Series), Guildford 1982.
Bonar, H.
1858 The Land of Promise: Notes of a Spring-Journey From Beersheba To Sidon, London 1858 (in particular p. 302).
Cirelli, E. - Zagari, F.
2000 "L'oasi di Gerico in età bizantina ed islamica. Problemi e proposte di ricerca", in Archeologia Medievale 27 (2000), pp. 365-376 (in particular pp. 365, 367-368).
Clermont-Ganneau, C.
1874 "Letters, III", in Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statements (1874), pp. 80-89 (in particular p. 89).
1896 Archaeological Research in Palestine During the Years 1873-1874, Vol. II, London 1896 (in particular pp. 32-33).
Conder, C.R. - Kitchener, H.H.
1883 The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. Volume III. Sheets XVII-XXVI. Judaea, London 1883 (in particular pp. 176, 190, 222).
Dorrel, P.
1993 "The Spring of Jericho from early photographs", in Palestine Exploration Quarterly 125 (1993), pp. 95-114.
Fisk, G.
1843 A Pastor's Memorial of the Holy Land, London 1843 (in particular p. 326).
Franklin, G.
1911 Palestine Depicted and Described, London 1911 (in particular p. 146).
Garstang, J.
1932 "Jericho: City and Necropolis", in Liverpool Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 19 (1932), pp. 3-22 (in particular pp. 9-10, 17-18, pls. XII, XXc).
Guérin, V.H.
1884 La Terre Sainte: son histoire - ses souvenir - ses sites - ses monuments, Vol. 2, Paris 1884 (in particular p. 197).
Harper, H.A.
1894 Walks in Palestine, London 1894 (in particular p. 124).
Helms, S.W.
1988 "Jericho which was once a little city, but is now destroyed, and is but a little village", in S. Shaath (ed.), Studies in the History and Archaeology of Palestine (Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Palestine Antiquities), III, Aleppo 1988, pp. 83-102.
Kenyon, K.M.
1956 "Excavations at Jericho, 1956", in Palestine Exploration Quarterly 88 (1956), pp. 67-82 (in particular p. 82).
Mellaart, J.
1962 "Preliminary Report on the Archaeological Survey in the Yarmouk and Jordan Valleys", in Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 6-7 (1962), pp. 126-157 (in particular pp. 156-157, site n. 84).
Newton, R.
1870 Illustrated Rambles in Bible Lands, London 1870 (in particular p. 73).
Nigro, F.
1998 "Il parco archeologico per la conservazione e la valorizzazione di Tell es-Sultan, antica Gerico", in N. Marchetti - L. Nigro (eds.), Scavi a Gerico, 1997. Relazione preliminare sulla prima campagna di scavi e prospezioni archeologiche a Tell es-Sultan, Palestina, Roma 1998, pp. 205-229 (in particular pp. 207-208).
Nigro, L.
2005 Tell es-Sultan/Gerico alle soglie della prima urbanizzazione: il villaggio e la necropoli del Bronzo Antico I (3300-3000 a.C.) (Rome La Sapienza Studies on the Archaeology of Palestine & Transjordan 1), Rome 2005 (in particular pp. 198-199, fig. 4:11).
2006 "Sulle mura di Gerico. Le fortificazioni di Tell es-Sultan come indicatori della nascita e dello sviluppo della prima città di Gerico nel III millennio a.C.", in F. Baffi - R. Dolce - S. Mazzoni - F. Pinnock (eds.), Ina Kibrāt Erbetti. Studi di Archeologia orientale dedicati a Paolo Matthiae, Roma 2006, pp. 349-398 (in particular p. 366).
Osborn, H.
1868 The Holy Land, Past and Present. Sketches of Travel in Palestine, London 1868 (in particular pp. 242, 246).
Pococke, R.
1745 A Description of the East and Some other Countries, Vol. II, W. Boyer. Part 1, Observations on Palæstina or the Holy Land, Syria, Mesopotamia, Cyprus, and Candia, London 1745 (in particular p. 31).
Ritter, C.
1866 The comparative geography of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula, Edinburgh 1866 (in particular p. 33).
Robinson, E. - Smith, E.
1970 Biblical researches in Palestine and the adjacent regions. A journal of travels in the years 1838 and 1952. By E. Robinson and E. Smith. Drawn up from the original diaries, with historical illustrations, by Edward Robinson, Jerusalem 1970 (3rd edition by W.G. Dever) (in particular pp. 554-555).
Steward, R.W.
1857 The Tent and the Khan, Edinburgh 1857 (in particular p. 372).
Vincent, J.H. - Lee, J.W.
1894 Earthly Footsteps of the Man of Galilee, New York 1894 (in particular p. 152).
Warren, C.
1869 Notes on the Valley of the Jordan, and Excavations at ‘Ain es-Sultan, London 1869.
Wilson, C.
1885 Picturesque Palestine, London 1885 (in particular pp. 171-172).
Wilson, J.
1847 Lands of the Bible, Edinburgh 1847 (in particular p. 12).